top of page


Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin (or brain-based). Research shows that it can be inherited and has identified some genes that may predispose individuals to dyslexia. Though symptoms can vary by age and between individuals, common challenges are:

  • Unexpected difficulty with reading

  • Weak sense of sounds in spoken language (such as difficulty with rhyming sat/cat/bat or segmenting sounds)

  • Trouble sounding-out or decoding words

  • Labored, slow, effortful reading

  • Difficulty with spelling accuracy

  • Secondary reading comprehension weaknesses



When dyslexia is in question, it is helpful to look at the following:

  • Vocabulary (spoken language)

  • Phonological awareness (an understanding or awareness of sounds in spoken language)

  • Sound-to-symbol correspondence

  • Decoding (the ability to pronounce or "sound out" words)

  • Fluency (oral reading rate)

  • Comprehension

  • Handwriting or graphomotor skills

  • Spelling accuracy in isolation and in context, as age-appropriate



With the right support, students with dyslexia can become better readers and writers. Effective instruction targets phonemic awareness, sound-symbol associations, syllable instruction (six syllable types), morphology, and reading fluency. Integrated support to address reading comprehension, spelling and handwriting is also recommended.

*International Dyslexia Association: Dyslexia Basics

Dyslexia: Projects
bottom of page